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The German trenches were on drier ground but barely above water level and parapets and breastworks had been built up, rather than trenches dug. It had proved impossible to build concrete artillery-observation posts, which left the position vulnerable to a surprise attack.
The intended slow build-up of Allied air activity over the Ypres salient was changed to a maximum effort, after a weather delay on 11 July, due to the extent of the opposition of the Luftstreitkräfte. The Germans had been sending larger formations into action and on 12 July, the greatest amount of air activity occurred since the beginning of the war. Thirty German fighters engaged Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and French fighters of the Service Aéronautique in a dogfight lasting an hour, the RFC losing nine aircraft and the Luftstreitkräfte fourteen. The Germans resisted the British and French air effort until the end of July, when their losses forced a change to more defensive tactics. The attack was delayed on 1 July, at the request of Anthoine as the French needed more time to prepare artillery emplacements. On 7 July, Gough asked for another postponement of five days. Some British heavy artillery had been lost to the German counter-bombardment, some had been delayed and bad weather had hampered the programme of counter-battery fire. Haig agreed to delay until the 28 July. Anthoine then requested another delay because the poor weather had slowed his artillery preparation and after Gough supported Anthoine, Haig reluctantly agreed to delay to 31 July, even though this meant postponing Operation Hush from 7–8 August, to the next period of high tides. The first of a series of set-piece attacks was to begin with an advance to three objectives, the blue, black and green lines, through the German front line system and then the Albrecht Stellung (second line) and Wilhelm Stellung (third line), which were approximately 1,000, 2,000 and 3,500 yards (910, 1,830 and 3,200 m) from the British front line, at any of which a halt could be called if necessary.

投稿日時 - 2017-06-19 19:23:37

QNo.9342946

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>The German trenches were on drier ground but barely above water level and parapets and breastworks had been built up, rather than trenches dug. It had proved impossible to build concrete artillery-observation posts, which left the position vulnerable to a surprise attack.
⇒ドイツ軍の塹壕はより乾いた地面下にあったが、とはいえ掘った塹壕というよりは辛うじて胸壁と胸墻が水位より上に建てられているだけであった。コンクリート製の砲兵隊監視所を造ることは不可能で、このことは陣地を不意の攻撃に対して弱い状態のままであることが判明した。

>The intended slow build-up of Allied air activity over the Ypres salient was changed to a maximum effort, after a weather delay on 11 July, due to the extent of the opposition of the Luftstreitkräfte. The Germans had been sending larger formations into action and on 12 July, the greatest amount of air activity occurred since the beginning of the war.
⇒連合国軍は、イープル突出部上での空軍活動の増強を意図的に遅らせていたが、ドイツ空軍(Luftstreitkräfte)への対抗範囲のために、7月11日天気による遅れがあったが、その後、最大努力に切り変えた。ドイツ軍はそれより大きな編成隊を送って活動させていたが、さらに7月12日、戦争が始まって以来最大量の航空活動を起こした。

>Thirty German fighters engaged Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and French fighters of the Service Aéronautique in a dogfight lasting an hour, the RFC losing nine aircraft and the Luftstreitkräfte fourteen. The Germans resisted the British and French air effort until the end of July, when their losses forced a change to more defensive tactics. The attack was delayed on 1 July, at the request of Anthoine as the French needed more time to prepare artillery emplacements.
⇒30機のドイツ軍戦闘機が、英国陸軍航空隊(RFC)およびフランス空軍戦闘機と交戦して、1時間の間激しい戦闘を続けた。そして、RFCは9機の航空機を失い、ドイツ空軍は14機を失った。ドイツ軍は7月末まで英仏軍航空隊の奮闘に抵抗していたが、その時点で彼らの損失が(膨らんで)より防御に多くをつぎ込む戦術への変更を余儀なくされた。アントワヌの要請により、フランス軍は大砲の砲床を準備するのにより多くの時間を必要としたので、攻撃は7月1日に遅れていた。

>On 7 July, Gough asked for another postponement of five days. Some British heavy artillery had been lost to the German counter-bombardment, some had been delayed and bad weather had hampered the programme of counter-battery fire. Haig agreed to delay until the 28 July. Anthoine then requested another delay because the poor weather had slowed his artillery preparation and after Gough supported Anthoine, Haig reluctantly agreed to delay to 31 July, even though this meant postponing Operation Hush from 7–8 August, to the next period of high tides.
⇒7月7日に、ゴフはもう1回、5日間の延期を求めた。英国軍の重砲が幾つかドイツの報復爆撃で失われ、幾つかは準備が遅れ、また、悪天候によって反砲撃の砲火のプログラムが妨げられた。ヘイグは、7月28日まで遅れることに同意した。ひどい天気で大砲準備が遅れたので、アントワヌはもう1回遅れを要請した。ゴフがアントワヌを支持した後、ヘイグは7月31日まで遅れることにしぶしぶ同意した。ところがこれは、「ハッシュ作戦行動」が次の高潮の期間8月7–8日以降に延期されることを意味していた。

>The first of a series of set-piece attacks was to begin with an advance to three objectives, the blue, black and green lines, through the German front line system and then the Albrecht Stellung (second line) and Wilhelm Stellung (third line), which were approximately 1,000, 2,000 and 3,500 yards (910, 1,830 and 3,200 m) from the British front line, at any of which a halt could be called if necessary.
⇒一連のセットピース攻撃で、最初の攻撃は、まず3つの標的、青線部、黒線部、および緑線部への進軍で、ドイツ軍の前線システムを通って、それからアルブレヒト陣地(第2戦線)とウィルヘルム陣地(第3戦線)への進軍で始めることになっていた。それらは、英国の最前線からそれぞれ約1,000ヤード、2,000ヤード、3,500ヤード(910m、1,830m、3,200m)先であった。そのいずれかで、留まることが必要な場合は、それに応じて要請することができるものとされた。

投稿日時 - 2017-06-23 14:53:25

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回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2017-06-24 15:10:12

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